2008 - 05

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May 20

The nitric oxide-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid, NCX 4016, stimulates glucose transport and glucose transporters translocation in adipocytes.

Kaddai V, Gonzalez T, Bolla M, Lemarchand-Brustel Y, Cormont M. Unit 568, INSERM, Nice, France.

NCX 4016 is a nitric oxide (NO)-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid. NO and salicylate, in vivo metabolites of NCX 4016, were shown to be potential actors in controlling glucose homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the action of NCX 4016 on the capacity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to transport glucose in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. NCX 4016 induced a two fold increase in glucose uptake and the translocation of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, leaving unaffected their expression. Importantly, NCX 4016 further increased glucose transport induced by a physiological concentration of insulin. This stimulatory effect of NCX 4016 appears to be mediated by its NO moiety. Indeed, it is inhibited by a NO scavenger and treatment with acetylsalicylic or salicylic acid had no effect. Although NO is involved in the action of NCX 4016, it did not mainly depend on the soluble cGMP-cyclase/protein kinase G pathway. Furthermore, NCX 4016-stimulated glucose transport did not involve the insulin signaling cascade required to stimulate glucose transport. NCX 4016 induces a small activation of the MAP kinases p38 and JNK, and no activation of other stress-activated signaling molecules including ERK, IkappaB, or AMP-activated kinases. Interestingly, NCX 4016 modified the content of S-nitrosylated proteins in adipocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that NCX 4016 induced glucose transport in adipocyte through a novel mechanism possibly involving S-nitrosylation. NCX 4016 thus possesses interesting characteristics to be considered as a candidate molecule for treatment of patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

Nitric Oxide. 2008 Apr 23

Nitrates and NO-NSAIDs in cancer chemoprevention and therapy: In vitro evidence querying the NO donor functionality.

Dunlap T, Abdul-Hay S, Chandrasena RE, Hagos GK, Sinha V, Wang Z, Wang H, Thatcher GR.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Properties of the NO-ASA family of NO-donating NSAIDs (NO-NSAIDs), notably NCX 4016 (mNO-ASA) and NCX 4040 (pNO-ASA), reported in more than hundred publications, have included positive preclinical data in cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Evidence is presented that the antiproliferative, the chemopreventive (antioxidant/electrophile response element (ARE) activation), and the anti-inflammatory activity of NO-ASA in cell cultures is replicated by X-ASA derivatives that are incapable of acting as NO donors. pBr-ASA and mBr-ASA are conisogenic with NO-ASA, but are not NO donors. The biological activity of pNO-ASA is replicated by pBr-ASA; and both pNO-ASA and pBr-ASA are bioactivated to the same quinone methide electrophile. The biological activity of mNO-ASA is replicated by mBr-ASA; mNO-ASA and mBr-ASA are bioactivated to different benzyl electrophiles. The observed activity is likely initiated by trapping of thiol biomolecules by the quinone and benzyl electrophiles, leading to depletion of GSH and modification of Cys-containing sensor proteins. Whereas all NO-NSAIDs containing the same structural "linker" as NCX 4040 and NCX 4016 are anticipated to possess activity resulting from bioactivation to electrophilic metabolites, this expectation does not extend to other linker structures. Nitrates require metabolic bioactivation to liberate NO bioactivity, which is often poorly replicated in vitro, and NO bioactivity provided by NO-NSAIDs in vivo provides proven therapeutic benefits in mitigation of NSAID gastrotoxicity. The in vivo properties of X-ASA drugs await discovery.