Cell Cycle. 2007 Sep 28;7(1) [Epub ahead of print]
NCX-4016, a nitro-derivative of aspirin, inhibits EGFR and STAT3 signaling and modulates Bcl-2 proteins in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells and xenografts.
Selvendiran K, Bratasz A, Tong L, Ignarro LJ, Kuppusamy P.
Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
We have previously reported the inhibitory effect of NCX-4016, a nitro derivative of aspirin, on the proliferation of cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells, in vitro (Bratasz et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103:3914-9). In this report we present the results of our study on the mechanistic aspects of drug action including the molecular and signaling pathways involved in an in vitro cell line, as well as in a murine tumor xenograft. We report, for the first time, that NCX-4016 significantly inhibited the growth of cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer xenografts in mice. We observed that the inhibitory effect of NCX-4016 on cell proliferation was associated with G(1) phase cell cycle arrest with increased activity of p53, p21 and p27 proteins. NCX-4016 modulated the Bcl-2 family of proteins, and induced apoptosis by activating Bax and cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. In addition, NCX-4016 selectively down-regulated the phosphorylated forms of EGFR (Tyr845, Tyr992), pAkt (Ser473, Thr305), and STAT3 (Tyr705, Ser727), in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the results clearly suggested that NCX-4016 causes significant induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells via down-regulation of EGFR/PI3K/STAT3 signaling and modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Thus, NCX-4016 appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for treating recurrent human ovarian carcinoma.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Dec;293(6):H3636-42. Epub 2007 Oct 12.
Roles of platelet and endothelial cell COX-1 in hypercholesterolemia-induced microvascular dysfunction.
Tailor A, Wood KC, Wallace JL, Specian RD, Granger DN.
Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932, USA.
Aspirin is a common preventative therapy in patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases, yet little is known about how aspirin protects the vasculature in hypercholesterolemia. The present study determines whether aspirin, nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NCX-4016), a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor (SC560), or genetic deficiency of COX-1 prevents the inflammatory and prothrombogenic phenotype assumed by hypercholesterolemic (HC) venules. Aspirin or NCX-4016 (60 mg/kg) was administered orally for the last week of a 2-wk HC diet. COX-1-deficient (COX-1(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice were transplanted with WT (WT/COX-1(-/-)) or COX-1(-/-) (COX-1(-/-)/WT) bone marrow, respectively. HC-induced adhesion of platelets and leukocytes in murine intestinal venules, observed with intravital fluorescence microscopy, was greatly attenuated in aspirin-treated mice. Adhesion of aspirin-treated platelets in HC venules was comparable to untreated platelets, whereas adhesion of SC560-treated platelets was significantly attenuated. HC-induced leukocyte and platelet adhesion in COX-1(-/-)/WT chimeras was comparable to that in SC560-treated mice, whereas the largest reductions in blood cell adhesion were in WT/COX-1(-/-) chimeras. NCX-4016 treatment of platelet recipients or donors attenuated leukocyte and platelet adhesion independent of platelet COX-1 inhibition. Platelet- and endothelial cell-associated COX-1 promote microvascular inflammation and thrombogenesis during hypercholesterolemia, yet nitric oxide-releasing aspirin directly inhibits platelets independent of COX-1.